[43] On 24 November, Giáp ordered the 148th Infantry Regiment and the 316th Division to attack Lai Chau, while the 308th, 312th, and 351st divisions assaulted Điện Biên Phủ from Việt Bắc. [89], Many of the flights operated by the French Air force to evacuate casualties had female flight nurses on board. Finally, Navarre, the intellectual, the cold and professional soldier, was shocked by the "school's out" attitude of Salan and his senior commanders and staff officers. Cogny: "Of course you will fight to the end. Cheap flights from Dien Bien Phu to Doha Search and compare DIN-DOH flight deals from airlines and travel agents on Jetcost. The resulting agreement partitioned Vietnam into two zones: communist North Vietnam and the State of Vietnam, which opposed the agreement,[105] to the south. [40] The Viet Minh elite 148th Independent Infantry Regiment, headquartered at Điện Biên Phủ, reacted "instantly and effectively". [126] Also, the US Air Force dropped 114,810 tons of bombs on the North Vietnamese at Khe Sanh, roughly as many as on Japan in 1945 during World War II. In 1953, the French had begun to strengthen their defenses in the Hanoi delta region to prepare for a series of offensives against Viet Minh staging areas in northwest Vietnam. The Cadres of Regiment 88, Brigade 308 disseminate the combat plan to the soldiers. In the southeast, strong point Beatrice-3, its defenses smashed by 75 mm mountain guns firing at point-blank range, was quickly overrun by the 209th Regiment's 130th Battalion. Vive la France!" Captured French artillery guns and other military vehicles, including an M24 Chaffee, displayed at the Dien Bien Phu Museum. Dien Bien Phu Airport (IATA: DIN, ICAO: VVDB) (Vietnamese: Sân Bay Điện Biên Phủ) is located at Điện Biên Phủ in Vietnam Contents 1 Airlines and destinations This was apparent with the previously planned negotiations over the future of Indochina, which had just begun. Its efforts to breach Beatrice-2's barbed wire were stalled for hours by flanking fire from Beatrice-1 and several previously-undetected bunkers on Beatrice-2 that had been spared by the bombardment. Not, as in 1954, to Viet-Minh attacks, but rather to the bulldozers of progress. [112] Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden refused, but agreed on a collective security arrangement for the region which could be agreed at the Geneva conference. Nearly 30 kilometres away from the centre of Dien Bien Phu is the Viet Minh army complex containing shelters and trenches, also preserved in Muong Phang village. It is the capital of Điện Biên Province. [38] The French National Defense Committee ultimately agreed that Navarre's responsibility did not include defending Laos. [26], French staff officers failed to treat seriously several crucial differences between Điện Biên Phủ and Nà Sản: Dien Bien Phu Episode From Ten Thousand Day War Documentary, Archive footages of Colonel Sassi and his 2,000 strong Hmong partisans en route to Dien Bien Phu for a rescue mission in April 1954 (2000), "U.S. Pilots Honored For Indochina Service", "Breakdown of losses suffered at Dien Bien Phu", "French fall to Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu – May 07, 1954", "Battle of Dien Bien Phu | Chemins de Mémoire – Ministère de la Défense – Ministère de la Défense", "The Final Declarations of the Geneva Conference July 21, 1954", "An Analysis Of The French Defeat At Dien Bien Phu", https://phimhay.co/duong-len-dien-bien-2539/, "Ðiên Biên Phú – The "official and historical site" of the battle", An Analysis of the French Defeat at Dien Bien Phu, Airlift's Role at Dien Bien Phu and Khe Sanh, "Peace" in a Very Small Place: Dien Bien Phu 50 Years Later, Vietnam War Bibliography: The End: Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Conference, Field Guide to ..Dien Bien Phu for Historians, Wargamers and the More Discerning Type of Tourist by Peter Hunt 2002, The News Magazine of the Screen (May 1954), U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles on the fall of Dien Bien Phu (May 7th, 1954), English subtitled (Closed Captions) scene from the "Dien Bien Phu" docudrama by Schoendoerffer (1992), Archive radio calls between General Cogny & Colonel de Castries (1954) + 2 commented scenes from Schoendoerffer's docudrama (1992), Testimonial of General Giáp, 50 years after the battle (May 7th, 2004), Testimonial of General Bigeard, 50 years after the battle (May 3rd, 2004), Testimonial of Corporal Schoendoerffer, 50 years after the battle (May 5th, 2004), Provisional Central Government of Vietnam, French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh (1777–1820), Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Dien_Bien_Phu&oldid=996970557, Battles and operations of the First Indochina War, Battles involving the French Foreign Legion, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Decisive Democratic Republic of Vietnam victory, The last battle was depicted in 2011 Vietnamese first person shooter video game. [61], The northwestern outpost Anne-Marie was defended by Tai troops, members of an ethnic minority loyal to the French. Nevertheless this start date was delayed to 26 January, because on 21 January Việt Minh's intelligence indicated that the French had grasped this plan. Nam Thanh. Worse still, the Viet Minh lacked advanced medical treatment and care, with one captured fighter stating that, "Nothing strikes at combat-morale like the knowledge that if wounded, the soldier will go uncared for". It is out of the question to run up the white flag after your heroic resistance. [86] This barrage defeated the first assault wave, but later that night the Viet Minh detonated a mine under Eliane 2, with devastating effect. Even more critical, after the fall of the northern outposts, he isolated himself in his bunker so that he had, in effect, relinquished his command authority". At that point, Giáp decided to change tactics. [72] On the west side of Điện Biên Phủ, the 308th attacked Huguette 7, and nearly succeeded in breaking through, but a French sergeant took charge of the defenders and sealed the breach.[72]. Leavenworth, KS: Command and General Staff College, 3 June 1994. Ngo Dinh Diem; Search And Destroy; Operation Rolling Thunder; National Liberation Front; 1950s And 1960s; First Indochina War; Anti War Sentiment; Most … Giáp's forces besieged Khe Sanh for 77 days. [110], The United States did covertly participate in the battle. Wählen Sie bis maximal 100 Bilder zum Herunterladen aus. First, at Nà Sản, the French commanded most of the high ground with overwhelming artillery support. A Soviet 37mm automatic air-defense cannon used by the Viet Minh during the battle. At 08:00 the next day, the Algerian battalion fell back, abandoning Gabrielle to the Viet Minh. The historian Bernard Fall records, based on Langlais' memoirs, that Colonel Langlais and his fellow paratroop commanders, all fully armed, confronted de Castries in his bunker on 24 March. It consisted of a struggle between French and Viet Minh (Vietnamese Communist and nationalist) forces for control of a small mountain outpost on the Vietnamese border near Laos. Bigeard refused, saying "As long as I have one man alive I won't let go of Eliane 4. The plan was to resupply the French position by air - based on the belief that the Viet Minh had no anti-aircraft capability. [67], French aerial resupply took heavy losses from Viet Minh machine guns near the landing strip. On 27 March, the Hanoi air transport commander, Nicot, ordered that all supply deliveries be made from 2,000 m (6,600 ft) or higher; losses were expected to remain heavy. [60], De Castries ordered a counterattack to relieve Gabrielle. General Georges Catroux presided over a commission of inquiry into the defeat. [70] Giáp planned to use the tactics from the Beatrice and Gabrielle skirmishes. The problem, there are 2 types: mini van and mini bus, make sure to ask what it is, because by mini van travel with many local people, and you as foreigner will have the worst seat: backseat The price from Dien Bien Phu to Sapa is 227.000 VND at 230.000 VND for the morning travel. [49], In comparison, altogether the Viet Minh had moved up to 50,000 regular troops into the hills surrounding the French-held valley, totalling five divisions, including the 351st Heavy Division, which was an artillery formation equipped with medium artillery, such as the US M101 105mm howitzer, supplied by the neighbouring People's Republic of China (PRC) from captured stocks obtained from defeated Nationalist China as well as US forces in Korea, together with some heavier field-guns as well as anti-aircraft artillery. These later became painfully obvious, but at the time may have been less apparent. In February 1954, following the French occupation of Điện Biên Phủ, Democratic senator Michael Mansfield asked the United States Defense Secretary, Charles Erwin Wilson, whether the United States would send naval or air units if the French were subjected to greater pressure there, but Wilson replied that "for the moment there is no justification for raising United States aid above its present level". [107] Browse 543 battle of dien bien phu stock photos and images available or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. 11,721 captured (of which 4,436 wounded)[10] 62 aircraft[11] and 10 tanks lost It struck the death … 1 - The Beginning and the End. The choice of de Castries as the local commander at Điện Biên Phủ was, in retrospect, a bad one. O/n At Hotel In Dien Bien Phu (B/L) Morning activities. Langlais ordered another counterattack the following afternoon against Dominique 2 and Eliane 1, using virtually "everybody left in the garrison who could be trusted to fight". In the north, most of Beatrice-1 was swiftly conquered by the 141st Regiment's 428th Battalion, but the defenders held out in corner of the position for a time because the attackers thought they had captured the entire strong point when they encountered an internal barbed wire barrier in the dark. It represented one of the most glorious moments in Asia's anti-colonial struggles. 31. Dien Bien Phu Translation Project. Hotels 2. [113], Colonel William F. Long stated twelve years after the defeat:[121]. Oh, for a minute - which is to say 27 years - there, I thought Pierre … On 24 March, an event took place which later became a matter of historical debate. I feel the end is approaching, but we will fight to the finish." It portrays the 55-day siege of Dien Bien Phu (1954), the last battle by the French Union 's colonial army in the First Indochina War during the final days of French Indochina, which was soon after divided into North and South Vietnam. Dien Bien Phu represents the glory of the old soldiers, an occasion to put on their tattered, mismatched uniforms with medals as they retrace the battlefield and pose for photos for reporters and tourists. [48], The fall of Dien Bien Phu was a disaster not just for France but also for the United States who, by 1954, were underwriting 80% of French expenditures in Indochina. One, Geneviève de Galard, was stranded there when her plane was destroyed by shellfire while being repaired on the airfield. The Generalship of General Henri E. Navarre during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. The position surrendered that night when Nicholas personally waved a small white flag (probably a handkerchief) from his rifle. [84], Isabelle saw only light action until 30 March, when the Viet Minh isolated it and beat back the attempt to send reinforcements north. [96] Public opinion in France registered shock that a guerilla army had defeated a major European power.[4]. Muong Thanh. Unfortunately Sapa dont have bus station, i think you always will pay more. [92], Dien Bien Phu was a serious defeat for the French and was the decisive battle of the Indochina war. He had expected an attack, but had not foreseen when or where it would occur. [62], A lull in fighting occurred from 17 to 30 March. 1,052 1k. Giáp realized that, if pressed, the French would abandon Lai Châu Province and fight a pitched battle at Điện Biên Phủ. The Viet Minh briefly captured Huguette 7, only to be pushed back by a French counterattack at dawn on 1 April. Nice winter watch. decree of WWII, under which troops were compelled to advance even in the face of withering enemy fire, and were strictly forbidden to retreat. There had been no long-range plan since de Lattre's departure. Family Hotels in Dien Bien Phu . The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (French: Bataille de Diên Biên Phu pronounced [bataj də djɛn bjɛn fy]; Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ, IPA: [ɗîəˀn ɓīən fû]) was a climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War that took place between 13 March and 7 May 1954. In November 1953 General Henri Navarre, commander of French forces in Indochina, ordered the French Expeditionary Force’s parachute battalions to garrison and fortify an old Japanese airstrip – known as Operation Castor – and within weeks it was … The dawn attack, which Bigeard devised, began with a short, massive artillery barrage, followed by small unit infiltration attacks, then mopping-up operations. French defense of Hanoi rested on holding the Red River Delta, making it a key battleground. The event itself was in fact, both in terms of public opinion and of the military conduct of the war and operations, merely the end result of a long process of degradation of a faraway enterprise which, not having the assent of the nation, could not receive from the authorities the energetic impulse, and the size and continuity of efforts required for success. The French were unable to slow the Viet Minh advance, who fell back only after outrunning their always-tenuous supply lines. To accomplish this, a large fortified base was constructed at Dien Bien Phu in northwest Vietnam. [93], News of Dien Bien Phu's fall was announced in France several hours after the surrender, around 4:45pm, by Prime Minister Joseph Laniel. 167 aircraft damaged[12]. [66] Jules Roy, however, makes no mention of this event, and Martin Windrow argues that the "paratrooper putsch" is unlikely to have ever happened. The garrison was overrun in May after a two-month siege, and most of the French forces surrendered. Former French fortified positions such as Beatrice, Isabelle, Eliane, the Bailey bridge and De Castries' headquarters bunker have been preserved, all in relatively good condition. Valley of the Shadow: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu, pg.55. In May 1953, French Premier René Mayer appointed Henri Navarre, a trusted colleague, to take command of French Union forces in Indochina. [83] A French attack against Huguette 1 later that day was repulsed. [64] On 17 March, Cogny attempted to fly into Điện Biên Phủ to take command, but his plane was driven off by anti-aircraft fire. Also, the same runway used by the French during the battle remains to this day and is still in active use, but is made of concrete. [63] During this lull, the French suffered from a serious crisis of command. They brought in vast amounts of heavy artillery (including anti-aircraft guns) and managed to move these bulky weapons through difficult terrain up the rear slopes of the mountains. The rest had been killed, captured, or "deserted". After this key advance, the Viet Minh took control of more than 90 percent of the airfield, making accurate French parachute drops impossible. Paulo27. Vietnam Other Codes. By the end of November, six parachute battalions had been landed, and the French Army consolidated its positions. He said that this change of plan was the hardest decision of his military career.[53]. Indirect artillery, generally held as being far superior to direct fire, requires experienced, well-trained crews and good communications, which the Viet Minh lacked. The strategic positioning of their artillery made it nearly impervious to French counter-battery fire. As the Viet Minh anti-aircraft fire took its toll, fewer and fewer of those supplies reached the French. Just click on the location you desire for a postal code/address for your mails destination. The French and the few remaining Tais on Anne-Marie were then forced to withdraw. 1 Ch. [39], Operations at Điện Biên Phủ began at 10:35 on 20 November 1953. This was a prelude to the Second Indochina War, known in the United States as the Vietnam War. The French believed that the Viet Minh had no … Eden, however, doubted that intervention could have saved Dien Bien Phu, and felt "it might have far reaching consequences". [28] Second, Giáp made a mistake at Nà Sản by committing his forces to reckless frontal attacks before being fully prepared. CirCO Dien Bien Phu - A new upscale spot for a professional office environment. Leavenworth, KS: Command and General Staff College, 3 June 1994. [79] Concerned about a potential mutiny from his troops, Giáp had to call for fresh reinforcements from neighbouring Laos to bolster his dwindling and dispirited forces. The last French forces withdrew from Vietnam in 1956. Das Getty Images Design ist eine eingetragene Marke von Getty Images. On 11 April the garrison of Huguette 1, supported by artillery from Claudine, launched an attack with the goal of resupplying Huguette 6 with water and ammunition. When the Viet Minh invaded neighboring Laos the French deployed to fight a set-piece battle at Dien Bien Phu, in 1954, but instead were trapped. Giap himself and senior officers who fought alongside him took a patrol into the past on a pre-anniversary visit to Dien Bien Phu in early April. [58] He was buried there in secret to prevent loss of morale among the French troops. One 2018 book refers to aerial supply that the French needed to fly in 36000 tonnes of equipment – they managed 4000 tonnes. Navarre selected Điện Biên Phủ for Berteil's "hedgehog" operation. A number of quadruple 0.50 calibre machine guns were present and used in the ground role. [113], There were already suggestions at the time, notably from French author Jules Roy, that Admiral Radford had discussed with the French the possibility of using tactical nuclear weapons in support of the French garrison. The US historian Erik Kirsinger researched the case for more than a year to establish the facts. 7 May: ~14,000;~12,000 combat personnel~2,000 logistics and support personnel [36] Navarre had previously considered three other approaches to defending Laos: mobile warfare, which was impossible given the terrain in Vietnam; a static defense line stretching to Laos, which was not feasible given the number of troops at Navarre's disposal; or placing troops in the Laotian provincial capitals and supplying them by air, which was unworkable due to the distance from Hanoi to Luang Prabang and Vientiane. Thanh Minh. "[57] Two days later, the French artillery commander, Colonel Charles Piroth, distraught at his inability to silence the well-camouflaged Viet Minh batteries, went into his dugout and committed suicide with a hand grenade. [55] The French artillery fired a "TOT" (time on target) mission, so that artillery rounds fired from different positions would strike on target at the same time. The IBM strategic repository for digital assets such as images and videos is located at dam.ibm.com. [6], Two of the American pilots, James McGovern, Jr., and Wallace Buford, were killed in action during the siege of Điện Biên Phủ. At times, the French repulsed Viet Minh assaults on their positions while supplies and reinforcements were delivered by air. Codes List. [42], It was at this time that Giáp began his countermoves. At Điện Biên Phủ, Giáp amassed anti-aircraft batteries that quickly shut down the runway, and made it extremely difficult and costly for the French to bring in reinforcements. In his own words, “we strictl… The Viet Minh attempted to retake it on the evening of 12 April, but were pushed back.[77]. Free cancellation. Dien Bien Phu Translation Project. As part of a grand strategy, the Vietminh forces laid a trap in Dien Bien Phu while striking simultaneously at the French forces in Laos and central Vietnam. On the morning of 17 March, under the cover of fog, the bulk of the Tais left or defected. [14] Max Hastings stated that "In 2018 Hanoi has still not credibly enumerated its Dien Bien Phu losses, surely a reflection of their immensity."[103]. In late November and early December 1952, Giáp had attacked the French outpost at Nà Sản, which was essentially an "air-land base", a fortified camp supplied only by air. By contrast, at Điện Biên Phủ, the French artillery (six 105 mm batteries and one battery of four 155 mm howitzers and mortars[125]) was only sporadically effective. A few of them escaped to Laos. At this point, the morale of the Viet Minh soldiers was greatly lowered due to the massive casualties they had received from heavy French gunfire. A proposal for direct intervention was unanimously voted down by the committee three days later, which "concluded that intervention was a positive act of war". For the Americans, in particular Dulles, this wasn't enough. [76], On 10 April, the French attempted to retake Eliane 1, which had been lost eleven days earlier. [55] On the following morning, a truce of a few hours was agreed and the French were authorized to come to the captured position and evacuate their wounded and dead. [28] He learned his lesson: at Điện Biên Phủ, Giáp spent months meticulously stockpiling ammunition and emplacing heavy artillery and anti-aircraft guns before making his move. Viet Minh artillery opened a fierce bombardment with two batteries each of 105 mm howitzers, 120 mm mortars, and 75 mm mountain guns (plus seventeen 57 mm recoilless rifles and numerous 60 mm and 81/82 mm mortars). They told him he would retain the appearance of command, but that Langlais would exercise it. The Viet Minh assault began in earnest on 13 March 1954 with an attack on the northeastern outpost, Béatrice, which was held by the 3rd Battalion, 13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade. .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, De Castries: "The Viets are everywhere. Defense Technical Information Center. In the musical ‘Miss Saigon’, the character of The Engineer introduces the number ‘The American Dream’ mentioning that ‘it all changed with Dien Bien Phu’, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 12:07. Britain, already for some years involved in the Malayan Emergency, was concerned at the American alarmism in the region, but was unaware of the scale of US financial aid and covert involvement in the Indochina war. [85], The Viet Minh launched a massed assault against the exhausted defenders on the night of 1 May, overrunning Eliane 1, Dominique 3, and Huguette 5, although the French managed to beat back attacks on Eliane 2. Dien Bien Phu is located in the valley bordering Laos and Vietnam. [29] Third, the aerial resupply lines at Nà Sản were never severed, despite Viet Minh anti-aircraft fire. [98] Hundreds died of disease along the way. During their 1952–1953 campaign, the Viet Minh had overrun vast swathes of Laos, Vietnam's western neighbor, advancing as far as Luang Prabang and the Plain of Jars. [34][32], Navarre decided to go ahead with the plan despite serious operational difficulties. They were landed at three drop zones: "Natasha" (northwest of Điện Biên Phủ), "Octavie" (to the southwest), and "Simone" (to the southeast). 1 Ch. The French strong-points at Dien Bien Phu in northwest Vietnam are falling again. Hier können Sie Inhalte sammeln, auswählen und Anmerkungen zu Ihren Dateien hinterlegen. By the end of April, Isabelle had exhausted its water supply and was nearly out of ammunition. Everything was conducted on a day-to-day, reactive basis. Reset. "Of the 2,100 men who left Lai Chau on 9 December, only 185 made it to Điện Biên Phủ on 22 December. [48]This included France's regular troops (notably elite paratrooper units, plus those of the artillery), French Foreign Legionnaires, Algerian and Moroccan tirailleurs (colonial troops from North Africa) and locally-recruited Indochinese (Laotian, Vietnamese and Cambodian) infantry. [73] Reinforcements were sent north from Isabelle, but were attacked en route and fell back to Isabelle. They set up fortified towns and outposts in the area, including Lai Châu near the Chinese border to the north,[16] Nà Sản to the west of Hanoi,[17] and the Plain of Jars in northern Laos.[18]. [59] Any further French supplies would have to be delivered by parachute. Dien Bien Phu Post Codes: Vietnam. The prisoners were divided into groups. Freigegeben / keine Freigabe erforderlich. [71], The Viet Minh's simultaneous attacks elsewhere were more successful. Located on Dien Bien Phu - one of Ho Chi Minh city most bustling districts, CirCO Dien Bien Phu is only 4 minutes away from the city center. 380000. The flat river-valley floor, perhaps five kilometers wide, is overlooked on all sides by mountain ranges. Review by Cameron Wayne Johnson ★★★½ . The arrival of the 316th Viet Minh Division prompted Cogny to order the evacuation of the Lai Chau garrison to Điện Biên Phủ, exactly as Giáp had anticipated. [58], Following a five-hour ceasefire on the morning of 14 March, Viet Minh artillery resumed pounding French positions. The opposition between Hanoi and Dien Bien Phu might seem a bit tedious at first but strongly grows in intensity, as does the film in general. Combined with facilities from bank to coffee shop and … The attack began with a concentrated artillery barrage at 17:00. [6] Earlier, in order to succeed the pre-Điện Biên Phủ Operation Castor of November 1953, General Chester McCarty made available twelve additional C-119 Flying Boxcars flown by French crews. Béatrice comprised three separate strong points forming a triangle with the point facing north. [47] The Viet Minh troops converged on Điện Biên Phủ. The French government in Paris then resigned, and the new Prime Minister, the left-of-centre Pierre Mendès France, supported French withdrawal from Indochina. Never book the ticket with “Sapa Hotel Travel”, because … Historians are divided on whether this was a genuine attempt to repeat their success at Điện Biên Phủ by forcing the surrender of the Marine base, or else a diversion from the Tết Offensive, or an example of the North Vietnamese Army keeping its options open. Giap was later to play a crucial role in the war against U.S. occupation in South Vietnam. It was hoped that the … [82] This caused the landing zone to become perilously small, and effectively choked off much needed supplies. [7] Various types of artillery and anti-aircraft guns (mainly of Soviet origin), which outnumbered their French counterparts by about four to one,[7] were moved into strategic positions overlooking the valley and the French forces based there. The French army heavily underestimated the Viet Minh and wanted to choke the army by cutting off its resources and then finally bring in aerial reinforcements to claim the territory. In addition, monuments and memorials to both sides are situated across the region, as are the few remaining French Chaffee tank wrecks scattered all throughout the valley, such as in the many rice paddy-fields of the area. There was no comprehensive plan to develop the organization and build up the equipment of the Expeditionary force. War of Indochina : Dien Bien Phu battle, 1954 : Viet-Minh soldiers crossing moutains and forests with cannons … [109] According to the Mutual Defense Assistance Act, the United States provided the French with material aid during the battle – aircraft (supplied by the USS Saipan), weapons, mechanics, 24 CIA/CAT pilots, and U.S. Air Force maintenance crews. However, its decision, which was drawn up on 13 November, was not delivered to him until 4 December, two weeks after the Điện Biên Phủ operation began. They based this on their successes in Korea.